Reincarnation and the 35 Steps of Soul Evolution

Nocturne's Angel
Nocturne's Angel
6 years ago
928 posts

According to many spiritual teachers, all human beings are, in reality, spiritual beings on a human journey.We reincarnate as human beings in order to evolve as souls.

Our ultimate aim is to become fully conscious and capable as unique individual expressions of All That Is.

It is a long journey, but thats okay because the soul is eternal.

Soul Evolution

The souls journey is really a process of evolving. This means growing in consciousness, steadily progressing through different levels or stages of consciousness.

How do we grow in consciousness? Through taking on challenging experiences in physical form. These cause us to make important, soul-searching choices and call upon us to discover our inner resources.

But why in physical form? Why would a perfectly happy spiritual being decide to inhabit the physical realm with all of its limitations and difficulties?

It is precisely so that we can experience the state of what feels like total separation from others and from the rest of reality. Only by going into this physically separated human form can we know ourselves as beings in our own right, and not just as well undifferentiated blobs of energy. Being physical throws our experiences and choices into extremely sharp relief in a way that is not possible otherwise. This is how we learn who we are and how to become all that we are.

In other words:

Choice and the ramifications of choice provide the essential lessons of life. In a very real sense, you choose to be here in order to make choices.

Messages from Michael

The 35 Steps

We are here to know ourselves and be all we can be, step by step. And according tothe teachings of the entity known as Michael, there are 35 steps to the reincarnational process. The body and personality you have now are merely the vehicles you have chosen for this latest step in your journey.

But why 35 steps?

Why not 36 steps? Or 10? Or 100?

It is simply because, according to Michael, we go through five major stages of evolution through reincarnation. And, within each stage there are seven increments or levels to be completed. (Yes, itisrather like a computer game.)

5 x 7 = 35.

35 steps

Each single step requires a whole lifetime to complete. In fact, each step usually requires more than one lifetime. Typically, the entire journey of 35 steps takes well over a hundred lifetimes.

So lets look at the journey in more detail. Well start with the five major stages of soul evolution through reincarnation.

The Five Stages

The Michael teachings describe a sequence of five cycles or stages of soul evolution. They are named after the stages of human development:

  • Stage 1 : The Infant Soul
  • Stage 2 : The Baby Soul (also known as Child Soul)
  • Stage 3 : The Young Soul
  • Stage 4: The Mature Soul
  • Stage 5 : The Old Soul

Each of these five corresponds to a specific level of development in capability and self-awareness within the individual soul.

Each stage is also characterised by a different learning focus that is more subtle than the previous ones.

Michael Newton

Incidentally, the same pattern of soul evolution has been identified by the hypnotherapistMichael Newton(right). His groundbreaking research was published in the best-selling bookJourney of Souls: Case Studies of Life Between Lives(Llewellyn, 1994).

The books by Newton and his students draw upon thousands of transcripts of people who, under hypnotic regression, have re-experienced being between lives. From the higher perspective of their soul they are able to explain what happens after death and before birth. This includes information about the levels of consciousness through which reincarnating souls evolve.

What Newton and others have discovered is that souls between lives exist in light-form, and thateach soul emanates a particular colour of the spectrum which indicates its current level of consciousness.

The spectrum begins at white (all colours) but then goes through red, yellow, green, blue, to deep purple and violet. From low frequency to high frequency. The least evolved souls the newbies have a pinkish hue. The oldest souls those nearing the end of the whole reincarnational cycle have a blueish hue.

Although the spectrum is a continuum, Dr. Newton has found that it can be divided into five distinct stages or levels of evolvement, fromLevel ItoLevel V. These can be mapped onto the five stages given in the Michael teachings, fromInfant soultoOld soul.

So, for example, souls in the middle (or third) stage of reincarnation are referred to as Young souls in the Michael teachings and they are at what Newton would call Level III. They will have a yellowish or golden hue.

(As an aside, both Newton and the Michael entity also identify higher levels of soul evolution which do not involve reincarnation.)

The stages of reincarnation (orsoul age) can also be likened to the stages of metamorphosis we see in nature, such asegg, caterpillar, chrysalis, butterfly. In reincarnation, though, what changes is not the physical form but the mode of consciousness, especially the form of self-awareness and as a result the way of relating to others.

Soul age and personality

Soul age will affect how a personality comes across in certain ways.

  1. Infant soulsfocus on immediate survival needs. They flourish in simple environments close to nature, such as remote tribes or rural, pastoral settings. In the context of modern society, however, they can come across as uncivilised simpletons or yokels, and may even be deemed to be psychopathic or have some sort of developmental disorder. Psychologically, they are naive, impulsive and pre-conventional, acting on impulse or habit with little or no thought for consequences. Because they lack both social understanding and self-inhibition, they are capable of committing antisocial or immoral acts without any sense of wrongdoing. As such, they do not fit well within modern society and may end up in prison or in psychiatric units. While infant souls may lack the moral principles, social graces and cultural understanding of older souls, they are in a sense completely innocent, being without pretense or agenda. [Well-known example:Fred West, serial killer]

  1. Baby souls, in contrast to Infant souls, think a great deal about their actions. Their lives are about safety, security, structure and order rigidly so. Both their beliefs and their actions are largely rule-bound, so they are often ultra-conservative, traditionalist, orthodox, upright, moralistic, religiously devout, and mindful of law and order. That said, they will occasionally give in to temptation, or temper tantrum, and break the rules themselves but then might find themselves tortured with guilt and shame. They come across to older souls as rather square conscientious, conventional, conformist. Baby soul communities tend to be highly principled and civilised (think of the Amish). They are acutely aware of the rights and wrongs of peoples actions, including their own, though they have little insight into the motives behind them. Bad behaviour is sinful, and thats that. [Well-known example:Jimmy Swaggart]

  1. Young soulstend to be extravert, outward-bound, worldly, frenetically energetic, brash, competitive, political, ambitious and individualistic. They are more ego-driven than personalities at any other soul age, keen to prove themselves in the world at large. They like to think for themselves, assert their own opinions, and follow their own agenda, with a certainty that their own way is by far the best way. They are generally attracted to some form of worldly success fame, fortune, power, glory. In fact, they are more fearful of death than souls at other stages, and those who arent sure about life after death may be anxious to make a big impact on the world stage to create some kind of symbolic immortality for themselves. Young souls are acutely aware of their own goals and intentions but do not really question them. [Well-known example:Napolon Bonaparte.]

  1. Mature soulstend to be thoughtful, reflective and sincere within themselves, and sensitive and empathetic towards others. Psychologically, their awareness is no longer egocentric (in the sense of being limited to a single perspective), but capable of accommodating multiple perspectives. In fact, the self-serving ego comes to be seen as a problem, something to be overcome though in reality it is more a case of incorporating it into a broader level of awareness. This tension between ego and ego-transcendence, or between having both a personal agenda and a desire to be more open and authentic, makes life much more complicated sometimes overwhelmingly so. On the one hand, mature souls reject narrow-minded values. Yet on the other hand, they can empathise with whoever holds those same values. Fixed opinions are replaced by a sense of ever-shifting perspectives It all depends on how you look at it. This disappearance of solid ground kicks off a search for deeper meaning and self-understanding whether through art, psychology, philosophy or spirituality. Politically, mature souls tend to be liberal and inclusive, and disapprove of any kind of narrow chauvinism. To younger souls, they can come across as bleeding-heart liberals. They tend to question everything, including their own motives, and are prone to do a lot of soul-searching (literally). [Well known example:Barack Obama.]

  1. OId soulstend to exude some degree of depth, gravitas or wisdom that is quite unmistakable. Having moved beyond the conflicts of the mature soul, they are also lighter and have a sense of joyous freedom the freedom to enjoy being very much in the world, but not of it. They are relatively calm, measured, untroubled and stable, unattached to social structures and cultural expectations, being sure of their own existence and inner strengths and their compassion for others. Their focus is on true self-expression and fulfillment, consciously participating in the evolution of all-that-is. As such, they tend to go their own unique way in life, letting go and letting be, in a detached way that may seem very weird and eccentric to younger souls. Late-stage old souls often focus on teaching spiritual wisdom with great compassion. [Well-known example:Osho]

Note:These descriptions emphasise the differences between stages. In reality, though, there is a gradual blend from one stage to the next. A person at the start of the Mature stage, for example, will act mostly like a Young soul but with elements of Mature soul nature beginning to emerge.

The lessons of each stage

Here are the five stages of soul evolution through human reincarnation, together with the typical learning experiences associated with each stage:

soul age focus 2 450

So we begin reincarnating as Infant souls, complete novices at physical existence. At this first stage we are largely in a state of incompetence and terror, frankly. But through experiences and choices we learn and grow. We steadily progress from being Infant souls to Baby souls to Young souls to Mature souls. Finally, we enter the fifth stage as accomplished Old souls, the experts of human existence.

As infant souls we learned about choices having to do with survival, as baby souls choices having to do with moral codes and ethics, as young souls choices having to do with mastery of achievement, as mature souls choices having to do with relationships, and as old souls choices having to do with the nature of oneness with the Tao. An infant soul would therefore not understand the choices of an old soul although an older soul would likely have more understanding of the nature of younger soul choice having had them.

Michael, via Victoria Marina

To look at each stage in more detail see:

Stage 1. The Infant Soul

Stage 2. The Baby Soul

Stage 3. The Young Soul

Stage 4. The Mature Soul

Stage 5. The Old Soul

Soul levels in the human population

The six or seven billion people on the planet span the whole range of stages, but the average is said to be somewhere just past the mid-point of stage 3 (see chart below). In other words, this world is currently dominated by Young souls whose primary focus is competitive self-advancement.

The seven steps within each stage

Within each stage there are seven discrete steps to go through. In the Michael teachings, they are called levels, so in each stage we proceed from 1st level to 7th level. Calling these levels can be a bit confusing (since Newton refers to the five major stages as levels), so I sometimes prefer to call them steps.

So each stage of reincarnation has seven distinct learning steps. For example, we begin the whole journey at step 1 as Infant souls, learn that lesson, then undertake step 2 as Infant souls, and so on. On completing the 7th step of the Infant stage, we then begin the 1st step of the Baby stage.

35 steps

The early steps in any stage are aboutexperiencinglife at this new stage of evolution, learning the essential lessons through appropriate experiences.

The later steps are aboutexpressingthose lessons, demonstrating this level of consciousness in action.

For example, in the Young soul stage, the first three steps from 1st level Young soul to 3rd level Young soul are aboutdiscoveringthe meaning of free will and self-determination; the last three steps 5th level Young soul to 7th level Young soul are aboutdemonstratingthe meaning of free will and self-determination in action. (The middle step 4th level Young soul is about consolidating the lessons learned.)

The first step or level of any stage is like putting a toe in the water; the final step is like teaching others how to swim:

1st Level Initiation into the new stage. Toe in the water. First glimpses of the new consciousness.
2nd Level Building foundations. Wading in and out. Compare and contrast the old and new consciousness.
3rd Level Taking the plunge. Letting go of the prior stage. Actively exploring the new consciousness.
4th Level Relaxing into it, enjoying the water. Identification with this stage. Internal integration of the new consciousness.
5th Level Splashing about. Look at me! Going public with it. Expressing this level of consciousness.
6th Level Responsible swimming. Burning off any karma incurred. Harmonisation ones consciousness with others.
7th Level Mastery of consciousness at this level. Role model. Peak performance. Whats next?

This sequence of seven steps is repeated through each stage, making 35 steps in all from the beginning of reincarnation to the end.

In case youre wondering, Im at the 5th level of the Mature soul stage. My lifes lesson is about expressing my current stage of consciousness (multi-perpective, ego-transcending).

To give some other examples of who is where (NOTE I have cobbled these together from various sources whom I think are reliable, though I cannot vouch for total accuracy):

1st Level (There arent very many famous early baby souls.)
2nd Level
3rd Level
4th Level
5th Level Adolf Hitler
6th Level Dick Cheney, Ayatollah Khomeini
7th Level Richard Nixon, Jerry Falwell, Sarah Palin [or possibly 1st-level Young]
1st Level Jim Bakker, Tammy Fae Bakker
2nd Level Niccol Machiavelli, Henry IV (King of England)
3rd Level George W. Bush, John Calvin, Ivan IV, The Terrible (Tsar of Russia)
4th Level Ronald Reagan, Catherine the Great (Empress of Russia), St. Dominic, Hector Berlioz, George Frideric Handel, Frdric Chopin
5th Level Hillary Clinton, Silvestre Reyes (US Senator)
6th Level Oliver Cromwell, Charles I (King of England), Claudius (Emperor of Rome), Robert Ballard (oceanographer), Susan B Anthony (19C feminist)
7th Level Jon Stewart, Aleister Crowley, Peter the Great (Emperor of Russia), John Glenn (astronaut)
1st Level Joseph Lieberman, Elizabeth Cady Stanton (19C feminist)
2nd Level John Lennon, Princess Diana, Tzu-Hsi (last Empress of China)
3rd Level W. A. Mozart, Desmond Tutu, Dale Carnegie
From here on, the the arts and philosophy frequently serve as vehicles for soul-searching and self-examination as souls proceed through the Mature stage.
4th Level Michelle Obama, Stephen Colbert, Modest Mussorgsky, Richard Wagner, Jean Sibelius, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Giuseppe Verdi, Vincent van Gogh, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Michelangelo, Miguel de Cervantes, W.B. Yeats, Rumi, Leonard Cohen, T.S. Eliot, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Virginia Woolf, Anas Nin, Victor Hugo, Anne Rice, Plato, Michel Foucoult, Bertrand Russell, Immanuel Kant
5th Level Michael Jackson, Tina Turner, Gen. Wesley Clark, Joni Mitchell, Sandro Botticelli, Sergei Prokofiev, Giacomo Puccini, Louis XIV (King of France), Charles II (King of England), Richard III (King of England), William Shakespeare, Sam Neill, Eugene McCarthy, barry
6th Level Prince William, Francisco de Goya, Pope Paul VI, Joseph Merrick (the Elephant Man), Anwar Sadat, Dag Hammarskjld, Franklin D. Roosevelt
7th Level Judi Dench, Andrew Cohen, Rachel Maddow, Ralph Nader, Jacques Cousteau, Gioachino Rossini, Jacques Luis David, Victor Frankl, Monty Roberts (horse whisperer)
Barack Obama has been variously given as 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th level Mature.
The arts continue to attract Old souls in the early levels, but there is a growing emphasis on discovering ones path to self-actualisation and self-transcendence as an individual expression of something greater.
1st Level Christian Slater, Tommy Lee Jones, Gene Hackman, Carlos Castaneda, Andrew Weil, Igor Stravinsky, Robert A. Heinlein
2nd Level Whoopie Goldberg, Don Beck, Robert Redford, Eric Clapton, Robin Williams, James Taylor, J.S. Bach, Lorenzo deMedici
3rd Level Harrison Ford, Arthur C. Clarke, Ludwig van Beethoven, Clare Graves
4th Level Ken Wilber, Paul Gauguin, Walt Whitman, William Blake, Mark Twain, Alice Walker, Pema Chodron
From here, the expression of spiritual connectedness becomes more central and more explicit.
5th Level Carl Jung, Leonardo da Vinci, Ken Keyes, Pope John XXIII
6th Level Alice Miller, Thich Nhat Hanh, Krishnamurti, Gangaji, Ammachi
7th Level Ramana Maharshi, Anandamayima, Neem Karoli Baba

Many lives

So, we start our evolutionary journey at level 1 of stage I (as 1st Level Infant souls) and end it at level 7 of stage 5 (as 7th Level Old souls).

There are 35 steps in all. And each single step requires at least one lifetime to complete.

A single stepcanbe done in one lifetime but often thats too big a stretch, so an initial life may undertaken as a taster, followed by one or two more which really go for it.

Sometimes a life is interrupted, and the soul will just have to start over in the next life. Also, some lives are undertaken for reasons other than the specific intent to develop. For example, one lifetime might be undertaken primarily to assist another soul intheirdevelopment. And some lives are taken on primarily for the death experience, for karmic reasons. These can be very short, of the order of days, weeks or months.

Taking into account all the gaps spent in the non-physical state between lives, a single step is typically accomplished in about 100-300 years of Earth time.

The whole journey of 35 steps usually takes well over 100 lifetimes. Hence, the whole journey is likely to take of the order of 7,000-8,000 years, but possibly a lot more if the population is low and opportunities to incarnate are few.

Questions and Answers

Coming back again and again sounds dreadful. Why dont we just give up and be done with it? Cant I just decide that this is my last time?

You cannot skip any of the steps, nor would you want to (from the souls perspective). You wouldnt rent a movie but then skip to the final credits just to avoid the whole process of sitting through the movie. In fact, its more like a computer game. You are playing the game because you want to, and at some level you actually love it. And you know perfectly that you need to master one level before you can move on to the next level. Thats what the game is all about.

Who says?

Theres no tyrannical deity controlling the game, forcing you to keep at it, deciding who gets to graduate and who doesnt. Its just the natural dynamic of life and the evolution of consciousness. A tadpole cannot suddenly transform into a full-grown frog. A baby human cannot suddenly take on a professional career or family responsibilities. Theres a natural, inevitable sequence to go through. And weve all signed up for it.

But why? Whats it all about?

Well, at the level of spirit or essence, all is one, all is love, all is joy. This is all very nice, but consciousness longs to experience more and more of what there is to experience, the utter richness and fullness of life.

How does it do that?

By fragmenting into zillions of conscious entities, each of whom has its own experiences and perspective, and each of whom can make its own choices about what to experience. Any soul can choose to continue being submerged in all-that-is, albeit with little sense of self. Alternatively, any soul can choose to undergo the experience of life in a separate physical form, interacting with other souls in their own physical forms. This is the ultimate way to experience oneselfas a self.

And thats why we are here?

We have all made this choice: to use the human form as a vehicle to help us become more conscious of ourselves as the amazing beings we are. The aim is to experience every possible experience that enables us to emerge more and more consciously and fearlessly as ourselves. We begin as helpless infants for whom the experience of separate existence is quite terrifying. But we end as autonomous, self-realised beings for whom human existence is the most amazing way of being, feeling joyful and free and sharing love with the whole of life.

updated by @nocturnes-angel: 09/03/18 03:30:23PM
Nocturne's Angel
Nocturne's Angel
6 years ago
928 posts

Stage 1 : The Infant Soul

Those undergoing the first stage of reincarnation are known asinfant souls. Raw, primitive, unsophisticated, they are the novices of physical existence, learning to get used to life in physical form.

Courageous Souls


Any soul that volunteers for the journey of reincarnation is courageous indeed. It is a journey of many steps, many difficult lives, many births and deaths often traumatic. Yet those who are relatively new to the journey are still close to that cosmic urge to experience, learn and evolve. They have more enthusiasm for life than most of us.

All stages of reincarnation confront the individual soul with certain choices. At this first stage the focus is very much on choices to do with moment-by-moment physical existence and survival.

Infant souls are learning to adapt to the human form and to the world around them.There is an emphasis on very basic life-skills, both individually (food, shelter and so on) and as a family or small tribe (protection and reproduction).The major lessons for the soul are to do with experiencing oneself as a separate physical being with ones own needs and limitations,interacting with a physical environment and with other physical beings, both caring and threatening.

Infant Soul Lifestyle

Since the focus at this stage is to become acquainted with the nature of choice in a physical world, infant souls prefer to live in environments where the culture and the technology are very primitive. Hence, they do not often incarnate in advanced societies, finding modern civilisation and lifestyles too complex. Rather, they tend to choose simple lives in raw, natural environments. (Think of remote tribes in places like Papua New Guinea.)

If living within a modern society, they tend to live on the fringes. Because they lack the rigid social awareness of Baby souls, they can easily transgress accepted moral standards without realising.They may end up as criminals without even understanding what that means. Hence they might come to be regarded as dangerous sub-humans, or psychopaths, or treated as the village idiot. (An infamous example here would be the incestuous serial killer Fred West.)

That said, there is in infant souls a natural instinct to nurture and care for ones family, and this is the first opportunity for a form of love to be expressed and experienced in the realm of human separateness. The more we are willing to hold and care for one another,the more we find theterrifyingsense of separateness and aloneness diminishes.

tribal couple 300

With this emphasis on the benefits of physical care, it is natural thatServer soulsadapt to the physical plane more readily than any othersoul type.

Infant souls probably make up less that 10% of the worlds population.

Infant Soul Perceptions

The Infant souls perceptions derive primarily from the raw sensations of physical embodiment and encounters with a physical environment. The sense of self, others and life is at its most basic. Life is perceived in terms of ME versus NOT-ME the body and its environment.

There is much fear and little comprehension, other than that they are in a strange and often hostile environment.


At the same time, however, the infant soul is still close to the original state of oneness with all-that-is. Having little experience of physical separation as yet, the infant soul retains an inward sense of cosmic connectedness.

The soul that is newly cast from the Tao retains some of that essential alliance with the Tao not unlike the human infants closeness to its mother, but the human infant is not aware that it is far from the goal and the newly cast soul is. The ladder must be climbed and the infant soul is aware of this.

Messages From Michael(pp.43-44)

Because of their remnant closeness to Home, individuals at this stage also tend to haveanimisticperceptions. That is, they will readily attribute spirit (consciousness, mind, will) to anything and everything in the physical world animals, plants, rocks, clouds, flames, etc.The environment is perceived as consisting of many different agencies who can be either helpful or dangerous tree spirits and so on.

This sense of immersion in living consciousness is often expressed in tribal art and ritual. It is gradually lost during the infant soul stage, and will not be regained until the fifth (old soul) stage, thousands of years later.

On completion of the infant soul stage, a soul moves into the second stage of reincarnational development.


The Five Stages of Reincarnation

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5
Infant Soul Baby Soul Young Soul Mature Soul Old Soul
Nocturne's Angel
Nocturne's Angel
6 years ago
928 posts

Stage 2 : The Baby Soul

Those undergoing the second stage of reincarnation are known asbaby souls. Lessons during this stage are to do with adapting to the rules and customs of life in an orderly, civilized society.

American Gothic

Order! Order!


Lessons of the second stage

In the second level of soul development, the focus of human life is no longer on day-to-day physical survival but on participating in a social structure that providesorder,securityand asense of belonging.

The major lessons revolve around reconciling ones immediate personal will with the greater collective will often making sacrifices so as to create a more stable and organised way of living than that at the more primitive infant stage.

Amish women

This stage emphasizes self-control, restraint and compliance, taming ones personal, short-term impulses for the benefit of long-term stability and security. There is a sense of playing a meaningful role, doing something of value, and belonging to something that is greater than oneself. Life in society is a system of give and take, and here the emphasis is on learning to give, thereby supporting the greater good.

In Freudian terms, its about having asuperegoto tame the id. The ego is not yet in focus.


It is natural for us to seek order in lifes apparent chaos. And at this level of consciousness, weimposeorder. An order that is simple and absolute.

A baby soul adopts fixed, permanent structures such as strict rules, enforced law and order, and rigidly defined roles, including gender roles. All things perceived must be consistent with this rigid framework. If the facts appear to challenge ones beliefs, the facts must be wrong since the belief system is always right. If the Bible says the world was created in seven days, that is The Truth and any evidence to the contrary must be the work of Satan.

All actions, too, must be consistent with a clearly defined set of rules. As a result, baby souls tend think of behaviour in terms of simple dualisms: good vs. bad, right vs. wrong, us vs. them. For example, if being clean is better than being dirty, then cleanliness is absolutely good while dirtiness is absolutely wicked. There are no sliding scales or grey areas.

Us versus them

At the previous stage (as an infant soul), the environment was perceived in terms of beings that either help or hinder ones survival. For the baby soul, however, the world is divided into the uncivilised physical environment versus civilised society. And society consists of good or bad actors human beings who deliberately act in either a good way or a bad way.

And so the world at large now consists of two kinds of people: us versus them, we who do it right versus those who dont. We, the decent law-abiding people, versus the rest.

In psychological terms, the baby souls sense of self is culturally embeddedI am one of us where us meansothers who think and act like me.

The sense of personal identity is also predefined by ones role in society (e.g., I am the farmers wife).

Similarly, beliefs are predefined by the culture, and actions are predefined by the laws and rules of society. Baby souls do not, as yet, focus on setting their own perspectives, motives or agenda. (That all comes at stage 3.)


Whereas the infant soul flourishes in some sort of Garden of Eden environment, the baby soul likes to be very civilised, finding its feet in a perfectly ordered, rule-bound society. Think of anything from the American Deep South to the Taleban.

The various lives undertaken at this stage will generally focus on law and order, morality, organized religion, ethnic tradition, and being in a close-knit community.


Childhood will typically include indoctrination into a set of well-defined rules, beliefs and values. Education will tend to be marked by dogmatism, discipline, and a sense of propriety.

That said, the soul learns by experiencing both sides of any issue, so there are likely to be incarnations at this stage as criminals and outlaws as well as law abiding citizens, particularly in the early levels.

Baby soul behaviour is heavily coloured by a sense of what is correct or acceptable. There is only one right way to do anything, solets do it right or not at all.

As individuals, they are primarily interested in doing what is deemed right come what may. Their sense of rightness is largely dictated by their background and upbringing, andmaybe extremely conservative, hardline and xenophobic. A baby soul could, for example, work as a professional torturer and do so with a great sense of righteousness.

Because of their rigid beliefs and values, baby souls risk feeling unbearable lifelong shame should they ever do something which they believe to be wrong, such as blaspheming or dishonoring the family name.

For some, this absolute rigidity and inflexibility creates considerable inner tension and conflict (potentially leading to mental illness). Baby souls can be prone to rage at and excessively punish others who transgress the law, just as a way to take the heat off their own conflicts.

Generally, baby souls prefer to stick to their own ethnic kind within small, quiet towns. They can get by in the modern world, though much of it is not to their liking. They are not so comfortable in the big city with all its complexities, ambiguous rules and sinful temptations.

Ideally, baby souls would probably like to live together in a sort of Pleasantville town where life is completely safe and orderly and where there are no troublesome outsiders or free-spirited types breaking the rules.

Amish family

In some ways, baby souls represent the pinnacle of civilisation. Indeed, the rules and laws that underpin modern society stem from the baby soul impulse to organise community life. But with their fixation on rules, hygiene, and upright moral behaviour, they can come across to older souls as distinctly old-fashioned, uncool, and anal.

As a mark of their civilized nature, baby souls like to keep their homes and themselves especially clean and germ-free, to a degree which others might regard as obsessive or paranoid.

They also tend to dress the same as their fellow community members, as tradition dictates, rather than display any individualism. The whole point is to fit in, not stand out.

Because their own ethnic beliefs and traditions are assumed without question to be the only true and right way, baby souls tend to distrust other cultures. In the USA, for example, they make up much of the Christian Right and the Moral Majority.

One nation poster

How do baby souls get on with souls at other levels? Not very comfortably.

Infant souls represent the uncivilized aspect of human nature which baby souls are trying to get away from.

Young souls are difficult because of their insistence on progress and change, which challenges the baby souls desire for stability, permanence and continuity. In addition, young souls are often fixated on ego gratification and personal advancement, which baby souls tend to regard as distasteful and unGodly.

And to baby souls, mature and old souls with their complex and liberal ways are simply incomprehensible the Devils spawn.



With their need for a sense of cosmic order, baby souls are often highly religious. They are usually God-fearing in the most literal sense, both absolutist and fundamentalist. They tend to personify God as the ultimate authority figure who doles out punishments to sinners.

Baby souls will tend to regard their religious leaders as infallible and their scriptures as the literal word of God. The religion into which they are born is assumed without question to be theone true religion(even though in each lifetime they might be born into a completely different religion).


Because of their overriding sense of order, baby souls like to do everything right and by-the-book literally, in the sense of the Bible, the Koran and so on. But, rather like toddlers, they are also prone to enraged tantrums when their rigidly defined expectations are not met, such as when their concept of morality is violated or their religious beliefs are attacked.


Some famous baby souls

Pat BooneBaby souls tend to shun the temptations of fame and fortune so beloved of Young souls, so there are not that many Baby souls who could be classed as celebrities. One example, though, is the American singer Pat Boone (b. 1934), a BabyArtisan.

There are, however, numerous well-known historical figures. Most notorious wasAdolf Hitler, a BabyPriestwho acted out his toddler rage across Europe, declaring it was Germanys duty to rid the land of filthy Jews and other unclean human beings.

hitlernixon (c)khomeini-04

Some other high-ranking baby souls of recent history include US PresidentRichard NixonandAyatollah Khomeiniof Iran.

Sarah Palinis a BabyKingsoul who appears to feel a calling to high office.

Not surprisingly, conventional religion abounds with baby souls, and many have made a name for themselves as outstanding preachers. Their teachings tend to have a paranoid, fire-and-brimstone flavour and often portray life as an apocalyptic battleground between Good and Evil, Light and Dark, God and Satan.

A good example is the fundamentalist Protestant evangelistBilly James Hargis(1925-2004), who was a forerunner of the Christian Right in the USA. In the 1950s and 1960s, hisChristian Crusadeministry was broadcast on more than 500 radio stations and 250 television stations. Hargis portrayed national and world events as part of a cosmic struggle between Christ, represented by America, and Satan, represented by Communism. Typical of many Baby souls, he saw the purity of his religion under constant threat from various forms of evil. His motto was All I want to do is preach Jesus and save America.

Ken Hamis an example of a baby soul who has attracted a lot of attention for taking on the scientific establishment in what is actually an exercise in sticking defiantly to the script. His mission is to defend the Biblical account of Creation from the onslaught of scientific evidence against it. He maintains that there were dinosaurs on Noahs Ark, for example.

Nocturne's Angel
Nocturne's Angel
6 years ago
928 posts

Stage 3 : The Young Soul

Those undergoing the third stage of reincarnation are known asyoung souls. At this stage, life is about asserting oneself as an individual in the world at large. Hence, young souls tend to be ambitious, materialistic and highly driven.

The Ego Has Landed


Young souls are learning to be independent actors in the world, exercising their free will.Hence, there is a major emphasis on self-assertion and self-advancement, freeing oneself from limiting structures, finding ones own strengths, discovering what Im made of.

The main lesson for souls in the third stage of their evolvement is to do with exploring and expressing individuality, discovering the power of independence in thought, will and action. There is a strong desire to make a personal impact on the outer world, so the focus is very much outwards and with a lot of energy.

At the same time, there is a tendency to over-compare oneself to others, evaluating self-worth in terms of my achievements relative to their achievements. This outwardly-fixated sense of self, the ego, drives a determination to be a winner and to be seen to win. The danger is that the appearance of success can become more important than anything else, including even happiness.

Young Soul Perceptions

Recall that for the baby soul (at stage 2), the world is perceived in terms ofusversusthem. For the young soul, however, the world consists of distinct individuals, each with a mind of their own, each with their own agenda. The young souls sense of self is as an individual who stands in contrast to other individuals I am not you, you are not me. Life is therefore perceived as a contest between competing individuals:meversusyouandyouandyou Or between competing agendas: my way versus your way.

And whereas baby souls automatically adopt the beliefs and values of their native tradition, young souls are busy developing their own perspective and agenda, their own way of seeing things and doing things. By asserting their own perspective, they can change what the world believes to be true. By pushing their own agenda, they can determine what happens in the world. They are self-determined agents of change.

Because young souls opinions are of their own making based on their own knowledge and reasoning they will naturally feel that their own opinions are inherently right and correct.As a result, anyone with a different opinion is presumably wrong.

But because others opinions too, right or wrong, can determine what happens in the world, there is a constant sense of competition, and hence a feeling that those who disagree ought to be put right, or put down, or at least proven wrong.

So, for the young soul, My way is the right way. I know it is because I can see it for myself. So lets alldo it my way.

What young souls do not recognise as yet is that all perspectives are equally valid. They are completely identified with their own perspective, certain that theirs is the right way to perceive and to act.

Young Soul Lifestyle

Young souls are drawn to live in highly competitive environments in which they can push themselves, assert themselves, and prove themselves. Frantic, materialistic cities like Hong Kong and Los Angeles are young soul hotbeds.

Because young souls can perceive life as a contest between ambitious individuals, the ideal outcome for many would be to succeed very loudly and visibly so that everyone knows who the winner is.

Hence, young souls are attracted to material signs of success fame, wealth, power, glory.

Other Young Soul Characteristics

At this level, love between individuals can be experienced as a reciprocal offering of goodwill:I make you feel good, you make me feel good, lets keep making each other feel good.

It is also a feeling that can be extended to others who are not directly known to oneself, or to abstractions. For example, one can feel great patriotic love (reciprocal goodwill) for ones country.

As artists and performers, young soulsare attracted more to fame and fortune than to seeking meaningful insights into the human condition.

There is nothing wrong with any of this, by the way. It is a natural and necessary stage of soul evolution for all of us.The audacious ambition and competitiveness of young souls may be distasteful to both baby and mature souls (for different reasons), but it serves to bring out the best in us as powerful individuals inventiveness, confidence, enterprise.Many of the worlds most remarkable achievements, from ancient empires to the Moon landings, have been young soul projects.

Some Famous Young Souls

Because they make it their business to succeed in life, there have been a great many prominent and well-known young souls in history.

One of the most famous figures of antiquity,Alexander the Greatwas a YoungKing soul(as well as a young king in life!) who created one of the ancient worldslargest empires.

The YoungPriest soulNapolon Bonaparte(below left) led France to take on every other major European power. He was both a tyrant to some and a brilliant military-political leader to others.

Another prominent Young Priest in history was the Roman EmperorConstantine(above right) who, according to at least one Michael channel(Holly Coleman), is now the Mature Priest known asBarack Obama.

As national leaders, young souls tend to perceive other nations as rivals in a contest. Many wars have been started by young soul opportunists, such asSaddam Husseinin the first Gulf War andGeorge W. Bushin the second.

Other Young soul leaders in recent history includeJohn F. Kennedy, Mao Tse Tung, Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher, Bill ClintonandSilvio Berlusconi.

In the entertainment world there are many Young soul celebrities, includingElvis Presley, Dolly Parton, John Travolta, Tom Cruise,Eddie Murphy,Beyonceand50 Cent(and in fact most rap artists).

Not all famous entertainers are necessarily Young souls, however. Almost just as many are Mature souls.

Nocturne's Angel
Nocturne's Angel
6 years ago
928 posts

Stage 4 : The Mature Soul

Those undergoing the fourth stage of reincarnation are known asmature souls. At this stage, life is about embracing otherness other perspectives, other people, other cultures, other parts of ones own being.


Knowing Me, Knowing You


The lives of mature souls focus on exploring the true nature of self, life and especially others. Reaching beyond the forthright independence of the third stage, the major challenge at this fourth stage is to discover how to live inter-dependently with others, and other-ness in general.


  • Whereas the young soul focuses on being assertive, competitive and successful, the mature soul focuses on being sensitive, cooperative and authentic.
  • Whereas a young soul insists that its own perspective is right, the mature soul recognises that other perspectives are equally valid.
  • Whereas for the young soul self-interest is all-important, the mature soul is more concerned with the self-other relationship.

Mature Soul Perceptions

The mature soul develops an ever-deepening sense of both self and others. Life is no longer simply a matter of what happens out there in the world, but also what is going on in here, where we are coming from, what it all means.

Through understanding more and more of its own psychology, the mature soul also learns about what makes others tick. They comes to recognise that all others are their equals, at least on the inside. In fact, their own perspective is nothing but one among many equally valid perspectives. In other words:

I see life from my perspective and you see life from your perspective. I accept that my point of view is just another perspective, and not necessarily the only correct one. All perspectives are equally valid. And we can arrive at mutual understanding by sharing our perspectives with each other.


At this level there is also the development ofempathy appreciating others experiences fromtheirperspective.

I can appreciate how you experience life. I can perceive life as you perceive it. I know how you feel, and I understand why. Though our perceptions are not the same, we are all the same on the inside.

But the mature souls sense of self can become confusing because of this empathy with others:

I am very aware of how you perceive me, how you feel about me. I can also identify with you, yet I am not you. So who am I?

The mature soul keeps being reminded that all perspectives are valid but not necessarily correct, and that there are perspectives on perspectives on perspectives So begins the search for a deeper truth that will ultimately lead back to oneness.

Other Mature Soul Characteristics

In contrast to the outward-bound adventures of the young soul, there is at this level an inward focus on perceptions, meanings, issues, relationships and the meaning of life.

Mature souls seek understanding, authenticity and integrity, especially in relationships, but also in other aspects of life including art and spirituality. They come to appreciate both the diversity and complexity of life, but there can be a lot of naval gazing as they struggle to get to the bottom of it all.

Because of their willingness to accept and include others, and their empathy for others experiences, mature souls can be overly self-critical at times. While young souls tend to blame anyone but themselves for their own problems, mature souls will readily look for their own faults.

And whereas young souls like to have their own opinions and assert them forcibly, mature souls are more ambivalent when it comes to taking sides on any issue.

At the beginning of the stage, they will tend to reject and criticise the competitive, materialistic thrust of young soul culture. (Ironically, many mature soul writers, artists and performers have achieved fame and fortune this way.)

But by the end of the stage sensitive to lifes complexities the very fact of holding a strong black-and-white opinion for or against anything (even against young soul culture!) comes to seem dubious and even absurd.

So rather than being cleverly sarcastic about those with alternative or less sophisticated views, the mature soul becomes more ironic and self-deprecating in their sense of humour.

Mature Soul Relationships

More than any at other soul stage, mature souls are likely to bond for life in a positive, loving, intimate partnership. It is a time for soul mates to get together and help each other work through their issues to create a mature, healthy relationship.

At this level, love is generally experienced and expressed asappreciation, a genuine acceptance of the otherness of another.

Irrespective of whether you make me feel good or not, and irrespective of how you feel about me, I love you for who you are.

The mature soul is attracted to opportunities to express this appreciation of otherness, or diversity, the more unfamiliar and alien the better. For example, one may develop a love of exotic wildlife or of foreign cultures.

Mature Soul Lifestyles

Mature souls can have sophisticated, avant-garde or post-modern sensibilities, but in private they may struggle with basic emotional issues. Because life is now all about optimising ones relationships with anything and everything, mature souls can find life to be intensely complex and stressful, filled with emotional turmoil, sometimes overwhelmingly so. Inner conflict is very common.

Hence there is often a need to find time and space for introspection, or psychotherapy, or perhaps an artistic outlet, to confront the confusion and negativity within oneself.

Hence also a desire to keep well away from both the enforced limitations of baby soul cultures and the me-first competitiveness of young soul cultures.Do it any place but hereis the mature soul motto, and this often shows in their facial expression.

There also emerges at this level a desire to explore the deeper and quieter forms of spirituality, such as Zen Buddhism. Mature souls tend to gravitate to liberal, multicultural places like London and San Francisco, though they prefer the relative tranquillity of the suburbs to the push and shove of the city centre.

Some Famous Mature Souls

There are many well-known mature souls, predominantly in the arts. In contrast to the can do, will do attitude of young souls, it is the subtlety, sensitivity and sincerity behind mature soul accomplishments that makes them stand out. Many of the worlds great artists, novelists and musicians have been mature souls, includingBotticelli,Michaelangelo,WilliamShakespeare,Virginia Woolf,DostoyevskyandVan Gogh

Mature souls:Michaelangelo, Shakespeare,andVan Gogh

as well asMozart,who apparently reincarnated asMichael Jackson.

The same soul?W.A. MozartandMichael Jackson

Many of the worlds great movie actors are matureArtisansouls (as opposed to moviestars, who tend to be young Artisans). As the mature ArtisanMichael Cainehas said, a moviestarwill want to change a script to better suit their image, while a movieactorwill change themselves to better fit the script. Examples includeKate Winslet, Johnny Depp, Meryl Streep, Robert Downey Jr.andHelena Bonham Carter.

Soul mates? Mature ArtisansJohnny DeppandHelena Bonham Carter

In the field of politics, mature soul leaders tend to be liberal, inclusive and internationalist rather than conservative and nationalistic. This is something many baby and young souls can find incomprehensible and detestable.

Recent examples includeTony BlairandBarack Obama(both typically earnest MaturePriests).

Tony BlairBarack Obama

Nocturne's Angel
Nocturne's Angel
6 years ago
928 posts

Stage 5 : The Old Soul

Those undergoing the fifth and final stage of reincarnation are known asold souls. In this stage of soul evolvement there is a search for balance and completion, and an urge to pass on the torch before the end of reincarnation.

Journeys End


Having completed the fourth stage of reincarnation, the soul has come a long way.

  • In the first stage, as an Infant Soul, it learned about physical existence, life and death, and the need for nurturing.
  • In the second stage, as a Baby Soul, it learned about society, culture and community, the need for structure, belonging, and playing a role.
  • In the third stage, as a Young Soul, it learned about free will and self-determination, taking charge of its own destiny, rising to the challenge.
  • In the fourth stage, as a Mature Soul,it learned about co-existence and interrelatedness, taking responsibility for its relationships, honouring difference and otherness.

At last, the soul is ready for the final leg of the journey: the return to unity and the end of reincarnation.

This return to unity does not involve any loss of individuality, as some imagine. The end of reincarnation ascension or enlightenment or what have you does not mean fading out of existence, dissolving into nothingness. Rather, the soul completes its adventure as a unique individual, like a distinctive star in the night sky, a completely realised Self.

So to begin this stage, the soul will tend to focus on trueself-expressionandself-actualization, seeking experiences which provide personal fulfilment within life on the physical plane.This could be found in, say, acting, painting, wine-growing, gardening, flying old aeroplanes, or simply being a grandparent. The soul is not interested in success or fame so much as doing something it loves well, and finding inner satisfaction.

Then, towards the end of the stage, there is more of an emphasis on teaching rather than simply learning: passing on the lessons learnt, showing others the way.

For some, especially OldPriestsouls, the teaching focus is explicitly spiritual. Many of the worlds great spiritual teachers are old souls.

Thats not to say that every self-proclaimed guru is an old soul. Far from it. There are spiritual teachers at all stages of reincarnation. But the advanced old soul has certain characteristics as a spiritual teacher that stand out from the rest: far-reaching wisdom, great compassion, and little or no attachment to material things.

The main lesson for old souls is to do with unity in diversity. The old soul already has a well-developed sense of personal identity (from the young soul phase) and interdependence (from the mature soul phase). Now the soul also feels drawn to reconnect with the greater order of things, the underlying cosmic unity.

This does not mean overthrowing the lessons of the previous stages in favour of some nice, fluffy notion of oneness. Rather, it means coming to terms with all of lifes dualities (self and other, love and hate, joy and pain, etc.) as integral to the whole.

Old Soul Perceptions

In this fifth and final cycle on the Earth plane, there is a more holistic perception of self, life and everything as part of a bigger picture.So while the mature soul comes to perceive others as its brothers and sisters, the old soul comes to perceive both self and others as integral parts of a greater whole, all unique yet all essential.

In other words, the old soul comes to perceive every thing, every being, every moment, as part of one great tapestry.

The issue now is how to relate to this united reality through ones own being how to be at peace with all of the conflicts, how to experience the harmony within all of the diversity.

This involves recognising the validity of each beings chosen path in life within the broader scheme of things. We are all part of the One, and yet we are many, each pursuing a different path. And no path is wrong. Hence the old soul motto: You do your thing and Ill do mine.

Old Soul Lifestyles

Old souls become more relaxed, laid back and detached in life. Human existence is familiar and manageable, and there are not so many problems or issues to deal with. The main issues, in fact, are existential rather than material or psychological.

Doing their own thing, old souls end up pursuing nothing but their own path whilst allowing others to pursue theirs, just perfecting their own abilities, being themselves in life to the best that they can. Many do so through artistic, humanitarian or philosophical endeavours, though for many their greatest form of self-fulfillment can be something as mundane as gardening. Work, rest and play all become the same thing.

A potential difficulty for old souls is lapsing into apathy, no longer caring about life and the world. As the physical plane begins to lose its allure, the incarnate soul can show signs of being world-weary, even from birth.

In fact, depression is the one form of mental illness to which old souls are vulnerable. (Which isnotto say that everyone with depression is an old soul, necessarily. Its just that an old soul who is beginning to see the bigger picture might sometimes feel that ordinary life is a pointless ordeal.)

In the end, joy is found in simply being as opposed to doing.

Other Old Soul Characteristics

How can you spot an old soul?

Old souls have a level of self-assurance that is unusual for souls in other stages (with the exception of King souls, who dont really do self-doubt at any stage). They are generally relaxed and comfortable in their own skins. Thats not to say that they have no issues; many clearly do. But their issues do not dominate them in the way that is often the case with mature souls.

Old souls tend to emanate a calm, steady quality that has substance, depth or gravitas. In comparison, young souls can appear frantic and superficial while mature souls seem perpetually stressed and assailed by life. You can often hear it in the voice young souls tend to talk loud and fast, mature souls have a sort of soft tone laced with uncertainty, while old souls tend to have a slow, deep voice relaxed, assured and unhurried.

This inner calm and depth is also evident in the old souls eyes. Whereas young souls cannot make eye contact for long, and mature souls will do so occasionally, when theyre not too stressed or distracted, old souls tend to make direct eye contact with an unflinching gaze. (Note: This isnotthe same as the cold stare of a psychopath!) They are unafraid to look another in the eyes and see into their heart.

Compared to other souls, old souls are generally more relaxed and philosophical about life, at ease with themselves and others, and have fewer material attachments. Theytend to be drawn to the quiet life away from the noise of the city. The old soul is more a citizen of the world than wedded to one place. OldKingsin particular will tend to spend their last lives as homeless, wandering teachers.

Some Famous Old Souls

Old souls who become famous tend to do so by virtue of their mastery, insight and wisdom rather than ambition.

Many of the finest minds in history have been old souls:Marcus Aurelius(121-180),Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519),Carl Jung(1875-1961).

In the arts we have the composerJ. S. Bach(1685-1750), the painterPaul Gauguin(1848-1903, now apparently reincarnated as artistPeter Teekamp), and the writersWalt Whitman(1819-1892) andWilliam Blake(1757-1827).

In the acting profession, there are numerous old souls who are brilliant at playing characters who are, essentially, younger souls mainly because there arent that many scripts featuring old soul characters! Consider, for example,Anthony Hopkinsplaying Hannibal Lecter orBen KingsleyinSexy Beast.Morgan Freemanis well known for the gravitas he brings to every role.

Clint Eastwoodsacting reveals amix ofWarriorsoul combativeness with old soul detachment, but it is as a director that he has achieved mastery.

Finally, many of the worlds great spiritual teachers have been late-stage old souls passing on their wisdom:Gurdjieff(1866-1949),JidduKrishnamurti(1895-1986),Ramana Maharshi(1879-1950),Anandamayi Ma(1896-1962),Neem Karoli Baba(d. 1973), theDalai Lama,Ammachi(Mt Amritanandamay Devi), andThich Nhat Hanh.

The End of Reincarnation

There are seven levels to every stage of soul evolution, including this one. So after completing the 7th level of the mature soul stage, the soul begins its next life as a 1st-level old soul. The soul then undergoes the whole sequence of development as an old soul, one life at a time, until finally it reaches 7th level. This is the final step, step 35, in 35 Step of Reincarnation

Now, I occasionally meet people who are convinced that they must now be in their final incarnation simply because they are so spiritual and have no liking for the material world. This is not how it works.

The goal of evolution is not to escape from the wretched physical plane, despite what many teach. Theend of reincarnationis not some sort of reward for good behaviour. Human existence is not a prison, or a wheel of torment, from which only the most worthy gain liberation.

We incarnate because we want to and we choose to.We keep doing it precisely because we want to come to terms with it. Weknowthat in each life we will probably spend several decades not remembering who we are, not remembering our eternal Home, buying into the illusion of separation, experiencing fear. This is the very stuff which inspires us to become more conscious.

Completion occurs when it matters not whether you are incarnate or discarnate: you see through the illusion and you always feel at Home.

If you have issues with being physical, then you still have a way to go.

So the last lifetime is one in which you are very content to be in physical form, using it as an opportunity to teach and enlighten others.

Ramana Maharshiis an example of someone in their last life, reaching the end of reincarnation. Towards the end of his life, some of his students begged him not to die, not to leave them. His answer was: But where could I possibly go? He knew that both he and everybody else are already Home, and always will be, having never really left it.

See:Abide As The Self[DVD]

Beyond the Old soul

On completion of the seventh level of the old soul stage, there is no longer any need or desire to reincarnate. The soul will unify its consciousness with soul mates who have also completed, and it may serve as an elder spirit guide to others still undergoing reincarnation. But there is no longer value to be had in incarnating as a human being.

There are some rare exceptions, however.

A number of oldPriestsoulssuch as the philosopherSocrates, the ProphetMohammedand MahatmaGandhiare said to haveincarnated to become vehicles for a higher level of consciousness capable of inspiring a cultural revolution. The higher consciousness manifested through these individuals only in later life. From that point on, they are referred to in the Michael teachings as transcendental souls.

Rarer still,Jesus Christand theBuddhaare said to be examples of oldKingsoulswho returned to become the physical embodiment of divine love, pure consciousness and ultimate truth, the Tao itself in human form. In other words, avatars. Again, the transformation did not occur until some point in adulthood. But from then on, these individuals are said to be manifestations of the infinite soul.

Nocturne's Angel
Nocturne's Angel
6 years ago
928 posts

I totally agree, I posted it because as a whole article I figured it was interesting. I don't agree with everything that they wrote in this article.

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